• Tuesday, July 16, 2024
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Steel rising: Harnessing Nigeria’s potential for global competitiveness in the steel industry


Nigeria, blessed with over 2 billion metric tons of iron ore reserves, is striving to position itself as a formidable player in the global steel sector. Despite facing significant challenges in the past, Nigeria is now well-placed to harness its mineral wealth and enhance its steel production capacity. This article explores Nigeria’s evolving role in the global steel market, emphasising its iron ore reserves, governmental strategies, challenges, and opportunities for growth.

Global impact and potential

The global steel market is crucial for economic development, supporting key industries such as construction, automotive, infrastructure, and manufacturing. According to the World Steel Association, global steel production surpassed 1.8 billion tonnes in 2021, underscoring the material’s importance in economic advancement and sustainability. Amid this backdrop, Nigeria, Africa’s largest nation, stands on the brink of substantial progress in the steel industry. Historically, operational inefficiencies and unrealised potential have hindered Nigeria’s progress, but the country is uniquely poised to make a significant leap in the international steel market.

Historical context and current status

The foundation of Nigeria’s steel industry was laid in the late 20th century with the establishment of the Ajaokuta Steel Mill in 1979. Envisioned as a catalyst for Nigeria’s industrialisation, the mill was expected to position Nigeria prominently on the global steel stage. However, due to various impediments such as mismanagement, corruption, and technical setbacks, the facility has remained largely underutilised. Despite these setbacks, Nigeria produced approximately 950,000 tons of crude steel in 2021, according to the World Steel Association. The sector comprises a mix of state-owned enterprises and private players, including the Delta Steel Company and smaller rolling mills, contributing to the output predominantly for the construction industry.


Technological and operational

A critical barrier to Nigeria’s steel industry advancement is the reliance on outdated technology in existing mills, notably at the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited. This technological lag undermines production efficiency and product quality, inflating operational costs and diminishing global competitiveness. The lack of local expertise in modern steel manufacturing further exacerbates the situation, necessitating reliance on foreign technical assistance.

Financial and investment

Nigeria’s high inflation rate and fluctuating exchange rates present ongoing economic challenges. The capital-intensive nature of the steel industry requires substantial investments in technology, infrastructure, and raw materials. However, attracting these investments is difficult due to the unpredictable economic environment. Local businesses face challenges in obtaining funding due to high interest rates and strict borrowing criteria.

Infrastructure and logistics

Infrastructure deficits, particularly in transportation and power supply, severely impact the steel industry’s operational efficiency. The lack of a reliable rail system for material transport and frequent power outages compels steel plants to generate their own electricity, significantly increasing production costs. Additionally, the absence of specialised port facilities for bulk material handling poses logistical challenges.

Policy and regulation

Despite governmental efforts to foster the steel industry through various policies, challenges in policy implementation, bureaucratic bottlenecks, and insufficient protection against unfair foreign competition hinder growth. A stable, predictable, and supportive policy and regulatory environment is crucial for the industry’s success.

Competition and sustainability

The Nigerian steel market faces intense competition from cheaper imported steel, complicating domestic producers’ ability to compete due to higher operational costs. Addition- ally, the global shift towards environmental sustainability presents both challenges and opportunities for Nigerian steel manufacturers to adopt greener production methods.

Strategic Growth and Collaborative Efforts

To revitalize Nigeria’s steel industry, leveraging domestic demand and fostering strategic partnerships is crucial. The foundation for expanding Nigeria’s steel industry significantly rests on its rapidly growing domestic market, driven by urbanisation, infrastructure development, and industrialisation efforts. Government dedication to enhancing national infrastructure, spanning transportation, housing, and energy projects, generates substantial demand for steel.

Establishing a vertically integrated steel industry, encompassing the entire spectrum of production from mining to manufacturing finished products, positions Nigeria to achieve significant cost efficiencies, elevate product quality, and bolster competitiveness. Strategic partnerships, both domestic and international, are essential for infusing the industry with necessary capital, technology, and expertise. These partnerships promise to modernise existing infrastructures, initiate new projects, and play a significant role in workforce development.

Simultaneously, the government’s role in crafting and executing supportive policies is critical. Regulatory reforms, alongside efforts in infrastructure development, are funda- mental in creating a conducive environment for the steel sector’s expansion. Such policies are designed to attract investments, foster local content growth, and anchor the industry’s long-term sustainability.


Nigeria’s steel industry is poised for significant growth with an integrated and strategic approach focusing on technological innovation, substantial financial investment, infrastructural development, and supportive policies. By harnessing its mineral wealth and fostering collaborative efforts, Nigeria can transform its steel sector, contributing to eco- nomic diversification and industrial growth. The strategic alignment of resources, policies, and stakeholder collaborations will be paramount in overcoming existing barriers and achieving a globally competitive and sustainable steel industry.

This endeavor will not only rejuvenate Nigeria’s steel sector but also set a foundation for sustainable development, showcasing the nation’s commitment to leveraging its industrial capabilities for a prosperous future.

.Udofia, a public analyst and researcher writes from America.