• Tuesday, May 28, 2024
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Sukuk as a Tool for Infrastructural Development in Nigeria


Considering the huge infrastructural deficit facing Nigeria, and the challenges being faced by the Federal Government of Nigeria due to a decline in oil revenue amongst other related issues, it has become imperative for State Governments and corporates to access alternative financing techniques to meet their capital development needs.

Activities in the equities market in Nigeria have slowed down considerably from the levels seen during the equities boom of 2004 – 2008 which has compelled corporates and governments to embrace the debt market by floating bonds. From 1960 to November 2013, there have been 80 corporate bond issuances in Nigeria and 34 state and local bond issuances; with state bond issuances dominating the market in recent times.

This article examines the potentials for using sukuk as a tool for capital raising and infrastructural development in Nigeria and discusses the recent sukuk issuance by the Osun State of Nigeria under the State’s N60 Billion Debt Issuance Programme. The sukuk issuance attracted international acclaim by winning the IFN Africa Deal of the Year Award 2013.

Sukuk as a tool of Islamic Finance

Sukuk provides access to a vast and growing Islamic liquidity pool in addition to the conventional debt and are commonly referred to as Islamic Bonds. However, this representation is not entirely correct.

Sukuk is defined in the Rules and Regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC Rules 2013) as investment certificates or notes of equal value representing undivided shares in the ownership of tangible assets, usufructs and services or investments in the assets of particular projects or special investment activity using shariah principles and concepts approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“the Commission”).  In simple terms, sukuk can best be called trust certificates.

In addition, under a sukuk structure, returns to sukuk holders (Investors) represent rights to receive payments from a trade transaction or ownership of a particular asset or business venture, while the returns to conventional bondholders represent the right to receive interest for borrowed monies.

Traditional bonds are not allowed in Shariah-compliant transactions due to their interest based nature as interest is prohibited in Islamic law as aforesaid. It is important to note that the underlying asset for a sukuk issuance must itself be Shariah-compliant. For example, a building does not qualify as an underlying asset for sukuk issuance if the major tenant will be a producer of alcohol. 

The Commission explicitly recognizes the following sukuk structures under Rule 571 of the SEC Rules:

• Sukuk Ijarah – (lease contract)

• Sukuk Musharakah– (sharing contract)

• Sukuk Istisnah– (exchange contract)

• Sukuk Murabahah– (financing contract)

Legal Framework for the Issuance of Sukuk in Nigeria 

Several Laws regulate the issuance of sukuk in Nigeria including the Investments and Securities Act 2007, the SEC Rules and the state law authorizing the sukuk issuance. The Commission in recognition of the development of Islamic finance introduced new rules on February 8, 2013 to regulate the issuance of sukuk in Nigeria. Rule 572 of the SEC Rules provides that all public companies (including SPV’s), state governments, local governments, and Government agencies as well as multilateral agencies are eligible to issue, offer or make an invitation of sukuk upon seeking the Commission’s approval.

The Rules apply to:   

i. sukuk which are offered by local or foreign entities that are within the regulatory purview of the Commission;

ii. sukuk which are denominated in Naira or in foreign currencies; and 

iii. sukuk which are listed, convertible, exchangeable, redeemable or otherwise.

From the wording of Rule 572, sukuk issued by private companies appear not to fall within the regulatory purview of the SEC. In a similar vein, a strict interpretation of Rule 567 will suggest that bonds issued by private companies will not be regulated by the SEC as this Rule specifically mentions only bonds issued by public companies, foreign public companies and supranational bodies. However, the SEC will exercise its supervisory powers over any instrument issued to the public by private or public companies. 

In addition to the advisers who advise on bond issuances, an issuer of sukuk must appoint a Shariah adviser who shall inter alia advise on all aspects of the sukuk including documentation and structuring and who shall also issue shariah certification which outlines the basis and rationale of the structure and mechanism of the sukuk.

Osun Sukuk Company Plc.’s Sukuk Al –Ijarah – Blazing the Trail

The Government of Osun State (“OSG”) through a wholly owned Special Purpose Company, Osun Sukuk Company Plc issued on the 8th of October, 2013 the first sukuk in Sub-Saharan Africa worth N11.4 billion ($70.6 million) under the Osun State N60 Billion Debt Issuance Programme to fund the development of 20 High Schools, 2 Middle Schools and 2 Elementary Schools in Osun State.

  The sukuk was issued at a rate of 14.75% per annum at N 1,000 per unit and matures on 8th of October, 2020. The issue which was rated A by Agusto & Co was successfully subscribed to by domestic investors with the price set through a book building process that lasted for 10 days.   

Structure of the Osun Sukuk

The SPC, Osun Sukuk Company Plc is a wholly owned Special Purpose Company of the Osun State Government incorporated with an authorised share capital of N1, 000,000.00 (One Million Naira) with Ninety Nine Percent of the shares held by the Osun State Government and One percent held in trust by the Attorney General of Osun State on behalf of the State.

The sukuk was structured as an Al-Ijarah; with the Osun Sukuk Company Plc. issuing sukuk certificates to the investors.

In accordance with Islamic law principles, each certificate represents an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the sukuk assets (i.e. the Schools). The sukuk assets are however held in trust for the sukuk investors by the Issuer. The sukuk investors’ payment for the certificates represents the cost of construction of the schools.  Holders of the Certificates have no recourse to any assets of the Issuer other than the sukuk assets. Since the sukuk holders are the owners of the assets (schools), they are free to trade the certificates in the secondary market.  The land upon which the schools will be built was transferred by the OSG to the SPC and a Certificate of Title (Certificate of Occupancy) was issued to the SPC.

The Issuer under an Agency Agreement, appointed the OSG as its agent to inter alia engage a construction company to construct the schools, obtain all government approvals, manage the operational and financial aspects of the construction for a prescribed fee and transferred the agreed cost of construction to the OSG.

The SPC forward leased the schools to the State Government against rental payments which will be remitted to the Issuer to make distributions to the sukuk investors; thus earning income for the investors during the construction of the schools.

A Purchase Undertaking was executed by the OSG in favour of the Issuer to give assurances that at the end of the lease/maturity of the sukuk or upon the occurrence of an event of default or early termination of the lease under the Ijara Agreement, the OSG will purchase the sukuk assets; with the purchase price being used by the Issuer to redeem the sukuk certificates at maturity.

The Purchase Undertaking is essential in Islamic Finance as it creates a debt obligation on the part of the OSG which eliminates market risk on the part of the investors. A Sale Undertaking was also executed by the Issuer in favour of the OSG in like manner. 

Sukuk – What Lies Ahead 

The issuance of the first state sukuk by Osun Sukuk Company Plc attests to the huge potentials for Islamic Finance in Nigeria, while its subsequent international acclaim creates integrity within the market which has the propensity to promote foreign direct investment. 

The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has so far registered Jaiz Bank Plc. to provide full Islamic Banking Services and has licensed Stanbic IBTC Plc to operate an Islamic Banking Window. In addition, Sterling Bank Plc has also been given an approval in principle to operate an Islamic Banking Window.

With the right team of professional advisers, it is clear that focusing on substance over form can contribute significantly to the rapid development of the Nigerian economy through the issuance of Islamic Finance products.  Nigeria should not miss out on this opportunity. 

About the Author

Oladele is called to the Nigerian Bar and is a qualified solicitor in England and Wales. He currently heads the Banking and Finance law Practice of Kola Awodein & Co. Lagos, Nigeria. He obtained his Masters Degree (with Distinction) from the University of Warwick, UK. He has advised on several capital market transactions.

Oladele Oladunjoye